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When Work 1分钟极速赛车全国开奖最快网 Job Suburbanization and Black Employment
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Conrad Miller of the University of California, Berkeley, summarizes his research (NBER Working Paper 24728) on how job migration between 1970 and 2000 contributed to rising Black unemployment. He finds that during this period, many jobs that had historically been associated located in urban areas moved to suburban locations. Blacks are less likely than Whites to work in suburban locations, so the shift of jobs to the suburbs exacerbated the racial employment gap. Transportation infrastructure projects that made suburban locations more attractive to employers contributed to this job migration.
A research summary from the monthly NBER Digest
Firms Inflate Job Titles to Avoid Paying Workers Overtime
Overtime wages are a core component of labor protections for workers. In Too Many Managers: The Strategic Use of Titles to Avoid Overtime Payments (NBER Working Paper 30826), Lauren Cohen, Umit Gurun, and Naim Bugra Ozel find that some firms avoid paying overtime by giving managerial titles to employees whose jobs are equivalent to nonmanagerial positions.
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), enacted in 1938, includes a set of overtime pay regulations to discourage companies from overworking…
Fellowships in Economic Measurement Honor Robert Summers
To advance research on economic measurement and better connect academics and practitioners in this field, the Conference on Research on Income and Wealth (CRIW) has launched the Robert Summers Fellowship Program. Named for a long-time CRIW member, University of Pennsylvania professor, and leading contributor in the field of international comparisons research, the program will sponsor five economic statisticians working in government agencies or international organizations to attend the NBER Summer Institute. The application deadline is April 5, 2023.
From the NBER Reporter: Research, program, and conference summaries
Real Estate Values in the Time of COVID
Real estate values capture the agglomeration benefits tied to the area where properties are located. Improvements to these locations, for example infrastructure investments, increase real estate values. Conversely, these values are vulnerable to reductions in local economic activity. My recent research uses changes in real estate values to measure the location-specific impact of the pandemic and to evaluate location-improving policies.
One branch of this work focuses on how the pandemic has affected residential real estate markets in US metropolitan areas. Arpit Gupta, Vrinda Mittal, Jonas Peeters, and I document the exodus from urban centers to suburban locations at the start of the pandemic. Using cellphone ping data to determine…
From the NBER Bulletin on Health
College Vaccine Mandates Reduced Local COVID Infections and Deaths
When colleges and universities reopened in the fall of 2021, only 47 percent of 18-to-24-year-olds in the United States were fully vaccinated against COVID-19. At institutions that required students to be vaccinated, however, the vaccination rates were much higher. In The Effect of Vaccine Mandates on Disease Spread: Evidence from College COVID-19 Mandates (NBER Working Paper 30303), Riley K. Acton, Wenjia Cao, Emily E. Cook, Scott A. Imberman, and Michael F. Lovenheim show that the health benefits of these…
From the NBER Bulletin on Retirement and Disability
The Impact of Paid Family Leave on Families with Health Shocks
The US is one of the few countries worldwide that does not have a federal paid family leave (PFL) policy. In the absence of a federal policy, some states have adopted PFL policies, starting with California in 2004 and now including 11 states and the District of Columbia. These PFL policies provide paid time off for workers who need to care for a newborn or a newly adopted child (parental leave) or for an ill or temporarily disabled family member (caregiving leave).
While there is extensive research on the use of PFL for parental leaves, based on the experience of California and other early adopting states, much less is known about the use of PFL for caregiving leaves. The imbalance in empirical evidence for the two types of leaves may contribute to the higher level of public support and greater consensus among…
From the NBER Bulletin on Entrepreneurship
Startup Chemistry and the Coworking Environment
Startups located in coworking hubs can benefit from knowledge spillovers from their startup neighbors. In (Co-)Working in Close Proximity: Knowledge Spillovers and Social Interactions (NBER Working Paper 30120), Maria P. Roche, Alexander Oettl, and Christian Catalini find that knowledge spillovers are greatest among startup workers who socialize but are in moderately dissimilar enterprises.
The researchers studied one of the five largest technological coworking hubs in the nation, where 251 startups were randomly assigned office space in a five…
Featured Working Papers
“Boomerang children” return home due to short-term instabilities, such as negative shocks to marriage, income, and employment, and their return is associated with a small increase in their parents’ probability of working after age 65, Grant M. Seiter, Mary J. Lopez, and Sita Slavov find.
Media coverage, Google searches, SEC downloads, analyst coverage, and lawsuits increase following a firm’s inclusion in the S&P 500 index, and firms that experience larger increases in attention also exhibit larger declines in performance, Benjamin Bennett, René M. Stulz, and Zexi Wang find.
Participants who were referred by outreach workers to the Rapid Employment and Development Initiative, which provided 18 months of a supported job alongside cognitive behavioral therapy, show declines in both arrests and victimizations for shootings and homicides, Monica P. Bhatt, Sara B. Heller, Max Kapustin, Marianne Bertrand, and Christopher Blattman find.
Measures of physical productivity in housing construction shows stagnation or decline over many decades in the efficiency with which construction firms translate materials inputs into output, Austan Goolsbee and Chad Syverson report. They find no evidence of within-industry reallocation in production toward more efficient firms.
An analysis of crypto-enabled cybercrimes finds that a few organized ransomware gangs dominate and have evolved into sophisticated corporate-like operations, according to Lin William Cong, Campbell R. Harvey, Daniel Rabetti, and Zong-Yu Wu.
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